Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


2019 Vol. 12 Issue 65–66

Apressyan R.G. Refection and Ethics (Retrospective Notes to Julii Schrader’s Paper “Human Reflection and Two Systems of Ethical Consciousness” (1990)

Full text in Russian: Апресян Р.Г. Рефлексия и этика (Ретроспективные заметки к статье Ю.А.Шрейдера «Человеческая рефлексия и две системы этического сознания»)

Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences

About author
Suggested citation

An article represents a commentary on an essay of a Soviet and Russian mathematician and philosopher Julii A. Schrader (1927‒1998), in which he developed original ideas and approaches to moral thinking and methods of decision-making proposed by a Soviet and American mathematician and psychologist Vladimir A. Lefebvre (1936‒2020) in his book titled Algebra of Conscience. The main statements of Schrader's work are considered in the context of Lefebvre's book and reinterpreted within philosophical consideration of morality. In particular, it is shown that the reflexive approach, brought to the third level, allows establishing definite correlations between the Golden rule of morality and Kant's categorical imperative (the possibility of which Kant himself consistently denied). The article also questions the notion of morality or ethical, seen behind the concept of “two ethical systems”, and shows that the latter reflects some aspects of morality rather than morality in its entirety. A critical analysis of a survey aimed at investigating the dominant type of ethical system, identifies substantial normative-ethical differences in model situations due to different kind of harm.

Key words: “algebra of conscience”, reflection, ethics, “ethical systems”, moral choice, consolidation ‒ confrontation, good ‒ evil, Julii A. Schrader, Vladimir A. Lefebvre

Full text in Russian >>

Cyrillic letters are transliterated according to BSI standards. The titles are given in author’s translation.

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Received 01 December 2019. Date of publication: 27 December 2019.

About author

Apressyan Ruben. Dr. of Philosophy, Professor, Head of the Department of Ethics, Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 12/1, ul. Goncharnaya, 109240 Moscow, Russia.
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Suggested citation

Apressyan R.G. Refection and Ethics (Retrospective Notes to Julii Schrader’s Paper “Human Reflection and Two Systems of Ethical Consciousness” (1990). Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2019, Vol. 12, No. 65-66, p. 1. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

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