Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


Baskaeva O.V. Self-fulfilling prophecy as the result of the teachers' beliefs

Full text in Russian: Баскаева О.В. Самосбывающееся пророчество как результат ожиданий учителя
Psychological institute RAO, Moscow, Russia

About author
Suggested citation

The paper analyzes research on a phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecy in school. Self-fulfilling prophecy is examined in the overall context and as an outcome of interpersonal interaction teacher – student. The impact of teachers' beliefs on students is discussed. The mechanisms of transformation of teacher’s expectations to student’s personal reality and the factors of student’s increased vulnerability to teacher’s expectations are shown.

Keywords: self-fulfilling prophecy; teachers' beliefs; gender stereotypes



Brophy J. Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1983, 75(5), 631–661. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.75.5.631

Brophy J., Good T. Teacher-student relationships: Causes and consequences. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974.

Cooper H. Pygmalion grows up: A model for teacher expectation, communication, and performance influence. Review of Educational Research, 1979, 49(3), 389–410. doi:10.3102/00346543049003389

Dusek J., Joseph G. The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1983, 75(3), 327–346. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.75.3.327

Eccles (Parsons) J. Sex differences in mathematics participation. In: M.L. Maehr, M.W. Steinkamp (Eds.), Women in science: Advances in motivation and achievement. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1984. Vol. 2, pp. 93–137.

Eccles J., Harold R.D. Gender differences in educational and occupational patterns among the gifted. In: N. Colangelo, S.G. Assouline, D.L. Ambroson (Eds.), Talent development: Proceedings from the 1991 Henry B. and Jocelyn Wallace National Research Symposium on Talent Development. Unionville, NY: Trillium Press, 1992. pp. 3–29.

Eccles J., Hoffman L.W. Socialization and the maintenance of a sex-segregated labor market. In: H.W. Stevenson, A.E. Siegel (Eds.), Research in child development and social policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. Vol. 1, pp. 367–420.

Eccles J., Jacobs J.E. Social forces shape math attitudes and performance. Signs, 1986, 11(2), 367–380.

Eccles J., Wigfield A. Teacher expectations and student motivation. In: J. Dusek (Ed.), Teacher expectancies. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985. pp. 185–226.

Eden D. OD and self-fulfilling prophecy: Boosting productivity by raising expectations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1986, 22(1), 1–13. doi:10.1177/002188638602200104

Eden D. Self-fulfilling prophecy as a management tool: Harnessing Pygmalion. Academy of Management Review, 1984, 9(1), 64–73. doi:10.5465/AMR.1984.4277938

Elashoff J.D., Snow R.E. Pygmalion reconsidered. Worthington, Ohio: Charles A. Jones, 1971.

Else-Quest N.M., Hyde J.S., Linn M.C. Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 2010, 136(1), 103–127. doi:10.1037/a0018053

Fordham S., Ogbu J.U. Black students' school success: Coping with the "burden of "acting white." The Urban Review, 1986, 18(3), 176–206.

Frome P.M., Eccles J.S. Parents' influence on children's achievement-related perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, 74(2), 435–452. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.2.435

Guiso L., Monte F., Sapienza P., Zingales L. Culture, gender, and math. Science, 2008, 320(5880), 1164–1165. doi:10.1126/science.1154094

Hamilton D.L., Sherman S.J., Ruvolo С.M. Stereotype-based expectancies: Effects on information processing and social behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 1990, 46(2), 35–60. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1990.tb01922.x

Harris M.J., Rosenthal R. Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 1985, 97(3), 363–386. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.97.3.363

Harter S., Connell J.P. A model of the relationship among children's academic achievement and their self-perceptions of competence, control, and motivational orientation. In: J.G. Nicholls (Ed.), Advances in motivation and achievement. Greenwich. CT: JAI Press, 1984. pp. 219–250.

Helwig R., Anderson L., Tindal G. Influence of elementary student gender on teachers’perceptions of mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 2001, 95(2), 93–102. doi:10.1080/00220670109596577

Jacobs J.E., Eccles J.S. The impact of mothers' gender-role stereotypic beliefs on mothers' and children's ability perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1992, 63(6), 932–944. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.63.6.932

Jensen A.R. How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review, 1969, 39(1), 1–123.

Jones E.E. Interpersonal perception. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1990.

Jones E.E. Interpreting interpersonal McCauley (Eds.), Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1995a. pp. 245–271.

Jussim L., Eccles J. Naturalistic studies of interpersonal expectancies. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995b, Vol. 15, 74–108.

Jussim L., Eccles J. Teacher expectations II: Construction and reflection of student achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1992, 63(6), 947–961. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.63.6.947

Jussim L., Eccles J., Madon S. Social Perception, Social Stereotypes, and Teacher Expectations: Accuracy and the Quest for the Powerful Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. In: M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1996. Vol. 28, pp. 281–388.

Kahneman D., Tversky A. On the psychology of prediction. Psychological Review, 1973, 80(4), 237–251. doi:10.1037/h0034747

Katz D., Braly K. Racial stereotypes of one hundred college students. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1933, 28(3), 280–290. doi:10.1037/h0074049

Keller C. Effect of teachers’ stereotyping on students’ stereotyping of mathematics as a male domain. The Journal of Social Psychology, 2001, 141(2), 165–173. doi:10.1080/00224540109600544

Kelley H.H. The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 1950, 18(4), 431–439. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1950.tb01260.x

LaPiere R.T. Type-rationalizations of group antipathy. Social Forces, 1936, 15(2), 232–237. doi:10.2307/2570963

Lareau A. Social-class differences in family-school relationships: The importance of cultural capital. Sociology of Education, 1987, 60(2), 73–85.

Madon S., Jussim L., Eccles. J. In search of the powerful self-fulfilling prophecy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997, 72(4), 791–809. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.72.4.791

Meece J.L., Eccles-Parsons J., Kaczala С.M., Goff S.E., Futterman R. Sex differences in math achievement: Towards a model of academic choice. Psychological Bulletin, 1982, 91(2), 324–348. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.91.2.324

Merton R.K. The self-fulfilling prophecy. Antioch Review,1948, 8(2), 193–210.

Midgley C., Feldlaufer H., Eccles J.S. Change in teacher efficacy and student self- and task-related beliefs in mathematics during the transition to junior high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1989, 81(2), 247–258. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.81.2.247

Miller D.Т., Turnbull W. Expectancies and interpersonal processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 1986, 37, 233–256. doi:10.1146/

Nisbett R., Ross L. Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980.

Nosek B.A., Smyth F.L., Sriram N., Lindner N.M., Devos T., Greenwald A.G. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2009, 106(26), 10593–10597. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809921106

Pope D.G., Sydnor J.R. Geographic variation in the gender differences in test scores. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2010, 24(2), 95–108. doi:10.1257/jep.24.2.95

Raudenbush S.W. Magnitude of teacher expectancy effects on pupil IQ as a function of the credibility of expectancy inductions: A synthesis of findings from 18 experiments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1984, 76(1), 85–97. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.76.1.85

Robinson-Cimpian J.P., Lubienski S.T., Ganley C.M., Copur-Gencturk Y. Are schools shortchanging boys or girls? The answer rests on methods and assumptions: Reply to Card (2014) and Penner (2014). Developmental Psychology, 2014, 50(6), 1840–1844. doi:10.1037/a0036693

Rosenthal R. On the social psychology of the self-fulfilling prophecy: Further evidence for Pygmalion effects and their mediating mechanisms. New York: M.S.S. Inf. Corp. Modular Publications, 1974.

Rosenthal R., Jacobsen L. Pygmalion in the classroom. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.

Rosenthal R., Rubin D.B. Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 1(3), 377–386. doi:

Simpkins S.D, Fredricks J.A, Eccles J.S. Charting the Eccles' expectancy-value model from mothers' beliefs in childhood to youths' activities in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 2012, 48(4), 1019–1032. doi:10.1037/a0027468

Snyder M. When belief creates reality. In: M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental psychology. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984. Vol. 18, pp. 247–305.

Spinath B., Spinath F.M. Development of self-perceived ability in elementary school: the role of parents’ perceptions, teacher evaluations, and intelligence. Cognitive Development, 2005, 20(2), 190–204.

Steele С.M. Race and the schooling of black Americans. Atlantic Monthly, 1992, April, 68–78.

Swann W.B. Quest for accuracy in person perception: A matter of pragmatics. Psychological Review, 1984, 91(4), 457–477. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.91.4.457

Tiedemann J. Parents’ gender stereotypes and teachers’ beliefs as predictors of children’s concept of their mathematical ability in elementary school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2000, 92(1), 144–151. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.92.1.144

Wigfield A., Eccles J.S. Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 2000, 25(1), 68–81. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1015

Williams T. Teacher prophecies and the inheritance of inequality. Sociology of Education, 1976, 49(3), 223–236.

Yee D., Eccles J. Parent perceptions and attributions for children's math achievement. Sex Roles, 1988, 19(5/6), 317–333.

Received 10 June 2015. Date of publication: 14 October 2015.

About author

Baskaeva Oksana V. M.Sci., Psychological Institute RAO, ul. Mokhovaya, 9, str. 4, 125009 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Baskaeva O.V. Self-fulfilling prophecy as the result of the teachers' beliefs. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2015, Vol. 8, No. 43, p. 9. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL:

Back to top >>

Related Articles