Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


Zarubin P.V., Sircova A. Time perspective and economic instability: а comparative study (2007 and 2013)

Full text in Russian: Зарубин П.В., Сырцова А. Временная перспектива и экономическая нестабильность: сравнительное исследование 2007 и 2013 гг.
Novosibirsk State University of Education, Novosibirsk, Russia
Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

About authors
Suggested citation

Developmental dynamics of time perspective during the period of economic instability in Russia was studied. Subjects of different age and gender were examined in 2007 (n = 388, 116 men and 272 women aged 14–88) and in 2013 (n = 344, 115 men and 229 women aged 14–81). The comparative analysis of indices of time perspective, subjective well-being and tolerance for ambiguity measured before and after the financial crisis of 2008 was performed. The study shows that after crisis adaptation to situation of economic instability take place. Such index of time perspective as Present Hedonistic score increased in 40–49 year old women. In general, Present Fatalistic score decreased especially in women aged 30–49. Future and Positive Past scores decreased. Relationship between tolerance for ambiguity and subjective well-being is shown. Respondents who are more open to the uncertain situations and are ready to bravely react to events of the unknown future are more satisfied with their life (especially those who are 21–39). In older people tolerance for ambiguity decreases which manifests itself in low levels of such component of subjective well-being as Environmental Mastery and in decrease of life satisfaction.

Keywords: time perspective, Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), developmental dynamics of time perspective, subjective well-being, tolerance for ambiguity, financial crisis, economic instability



Apostolidis T., Fieulaine N., Soulé F. Future time perspective as predictor of cannabis use: Exploring the role of substance perception among French adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 2006, 31(12), 2339–2343.

Baranova A.V. Extended abstract of PhD dissertation (Psychology). State University of humanities, Moscow, 2005. (in Russian)

Boniwell I., Osin E., Linley P.A., Ivanchenko G.V. A question of balance: Time perspective and well-being in British and Russian samples. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2010, 5(1), 24–40.

Carelli M.G., Wiberg B., Wiberg M. Development and construct validation of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 2011, 27(4), 220–227.

Carmil D., Breznitz S. Personal trauma and worldview – Are extremely stressful experiences related to political attitudes, religious beliefs, and future orientation? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1991, 4(3), 393–405.

Diener E.D., Emmons R.A., Larsen R.J., Griffin S. The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1985, 49(1), 71–75.

Drake L., Duncan E., Sutherland F., Abernethy C., Henry C. Time perspective and correlates of wellbeing. Time and Society, 2008, 17(1), 47–61.

Goldrich J.M. A study in time orientation: the relation between memory for past experience and orientation to the future. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 6(2), 216–221.

Hartocollis P. Time and timelessness, or The varieties of temporal experience. New York: International Universities Press, 1983.

Hell D. The landscape of depression, Moscow: Aleteia, 1999. (in Russian)

Holman E.A., Silver R.C. Getting "stuck" in the past: temporal orientation and coping with trauma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, 74(5), 1146–1163.

Horstmanshof L., Zimitat C. Future time orientation predicts academic engagement among first-year university students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2007, 77(3) 703–718.

James W. The principles of psychology. New York: Holt, 1890.

Kairys A. Time Perspective: its link to personality traits, age and gender. PhD dissertation. Vilnius University, Vilnius, 2010.

Kelly G.A. The psychology of personal constructs. New York: W.W.Norton and Co., 1955.

Lavi T., Solomon Z. Palestinian youth of the Intifada: PTSD and future orientation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005, 44(11), 1176–1183.

Lewin K. Dynamic psychology. Moscow: Smysl, 2001. (in Russian)

Lewin K. Time perspective and morale. In: G. Watson (Ed.), Civilian morale. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1942. pp. 48–70.

Markus H., Nurius P. Possible selves. American Psychologist, 1986, 41(9), 954–969.

Marris P. Loss and Change. London: Routledge, 1974.

McLain D.L. The MSTAT-I: A new measure of an individual's tolerance for ambiguity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1993, 53(1), 183–189.

Mello Z.R., Worrell F.C. The relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement among academically talented adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 2006, 29(3), 271–289.

Muzdybaev K. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2000, 4(21), 5–21. (in Russian)

Nurkova V.V., Vasilevskaya K.N. Voprosy psikhologii, 2003, No. 5, 93–102. (in Russian)

Osin E.N. Psikhologicheskaya diagnostika, 2010, No. 2, 65–86. (in Russian)

Proekt issledovatel'skoi seti MS RPO “RASP”: Izuchenie vozrastnykh osobennostei vremennoi perspektivy v Rossii, 2006. Russian)

Ryff C.D. Psychological well-being in adult life. Current directions in psychological science, 1995, 4(4), 99–104.

Salecl R. On Anxiety. London: Routledge, 2004.

Shevelenkova T.D., Fesenko P.P. Psikhologicheskaya diagnostika, 2005, No. 3, 95–121. (in Russian)

Sokolova E.T. Psychotherapy. Theory and practice. Moscow: Akademiya, 2001. (in Russian)

Sokolova M.V. Well-being scale. Yaroslavl: NPTS Psikhodiagnostika, 1996. (in Russian)

Sircova A., Mitina O.V. Voprosy psikhologii, 2008, No. 2, 41–54. (in Russian)

Sircova A. Extended abstract of PhD dissertation (Psychology). Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, 2008. (in Russian)

Sircova A., Sokolova E.T., Mitina O.V., Psikhologicheskaya diagnostika, 2007, No. 1, 85–106. (in Russian)

Sircova A., Sokolova E.T., Mitina O.V., Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2008, 3(29), 101–109. (in Russian)

Zaleski Z. Future anxiety: Concept, measurement, and preliminary research. Personality and Individual Differences, 1996, 21(2), 165–174.

Zimbardo P.G. Whose time it is, I think I know – Research on time perspectives. In: R.C. Silver (Chair), Temporal perspectives – A topic whose time has come – Again. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Los Angeles, CA, 1994.

Zimbardo P.G., Boyd J.N. Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual–difference metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, 77(6), 1271–1288.

Zimbardo P., Boyd J. The Time paradox. St. Petersburg: Rech', 2010. (in Russian)

Received 18 September 2013. Date of publication: 30 December 2013.

About authors

Zarubin Peter V. Psychologist, Secondary school No. 61 named after N.M.Ivanov, ul. Ivanova, 9, 630055 Novosibirsk, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Sircova Anna. Ph.D., Postdoc, Umeå University, Skyttegade 14, 2 th., 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Zarubin P.V., Sircova A. Time perspective and economic instability: а comparative study (2007 and 2013). Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2013, Vol. 6, No. 32, p. 9. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL:

Back to top >>

Related Articles